Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are widely used in various energy storage devices due to their outstanding electrochemical performances, such as high energy density, extended life cycle, and wide-ranging operating temperature. Electronic equipment lifespan is limited due to compatibility, consumer usage, and battery life. However, this growing demand for gadgets, electric vehicles (EV), and other electronic appliances is an extensively escalating in battery usage, which expands the toxic metals comprising electronic wastes. This extensive practice of battery usage has been distressing several complications to the atmospheric environment due to various hazardous substances, such as toxic metals, cathodic components, plastics, and flammable electrolytes, in spent Lithium-ion batteries and e-wastes. Additionally, spent lithium-ion batteries have been disposed of in open agriculture areas, landfills, and water resources, which pollute the soil and water bodies. As a result, spent LIBs pose serious pollution threats to the soil and groundwater without proper handling and unsafe disposal. Concerning the above environmental issues, lithium-ion battery recycling technology has been an increasing concern of the research and development sector, government agencies, and electronic enterprises due to the maintenance of valuable metal sources and environmental protection. Recycling spent lithium-ion batteries has become a hot topic of interest for recovering valuable metals, such as cobalt, nickel and lithium.